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In cases where suspected infringers have already been identified, a comprehensive investigation is conducted to determine the viability of conducting enforcement. Upstream investigation makes it possible to locate the main source of fake products. Some specific actions may include:

  • A background investigation to identify and prove actual ownerships, capitalization and distribution network. This is particularly important if criminal and civil actions are to be filed in court.
  • Obtaining of evidence, including samples of counterfeit products for examination and preparation for any legal actions.
  • Determining means and level of production or importation, including stock levels of counterfeit products.